International Nuclear Society Council


International Nuclear Society Council


General Information

The International Nuclear Society Council (INSC) is an organization whose Member Societies represent more than 50,000 nuclear professionals around the world. Current INSC Member Societies are:

  • American Nuclear Society (ANS)
  • Asociación Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN)
  • Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)
  • Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ)
  • Australian Nuclear Association (ANA)
  • Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS)
  • Egyptian Society of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (ESNSA)
  • European Nuclear Society (ENS)
    Austrian Nuclear Society, Belgian Nuclear Society, British Nuclear Energy Society, Bulgarian Nuclear Society, Croatian Nuclear Society, Czech Nuclear Society, Danish Nuclear Society, Finnish Nuclear Society, French Nuclear Society, German Nuclear Society, Hungarian Nuclear Society, The Institution of Nuclear Engineers, Italian Nuclear Society, Italian Local Section of ANS, Netherlands Nuclear Society, Nuclear Society of Russia, Nuclear Society of Slovenia, Polish Nuclear Society, Romanian Nuclear Energy Professional Organization, Slovak Nuclear Society, Spanish Nuclear Society, Swedish Nuclear Society, Swiss Nuclear Society, Ukrainian Nuclear Society, Yugoslav Nuclear Society.
  • Israel Nuclear Society (INS)
  • Korean Nuclear Society (KNS)
  • Latin American Section (LAS)
  • Nuclear Energy Society, China, Taipei (NEST)
  • Pakistan Nuclear Society (PNS)
  • Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana (SNM)

INSC was founded on 11th November 1990 by the INSG, an international group of Nuclear Societies.

  1. To be a global forum for Nuclear Societies to discuss and establish common aims and goals.
  2. To act as a global Non Governmental Organization in nuclear matters of international nature.
  3. To represent the views and positions of professionals and workers in the nuclear field through their Nuclear Societies.
  4. To value the work and achievements of the nuclear community of the world based on ethical principles adopted by the Nuclear Societies.
  5. To increase the operational efficiency of Nuclear Societies by establishing means for cooperation and complementation in the execution of their programs.

Nuclear Societies members of the International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) have been grouped in five geographical regions: Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, North America and At-Large (representing the other regions of the world).

Each region has six seats in the Council, where national and regional Nuclear Societies, or Federations of Nuclear Societies, are represented. Within a region, the number of seats has been allocated by agreement among the Member Societies of the region.

As of 31 December 1998, the membership of the Council is as follows:

REGION MEMBER SOCIETY NUMBER OF SEATS
Asia – Pacific
Atomic Energy Society of Japan(*) 2
Australian Nuclear Association(*) 1
Korean Nuclear Society(*) 1
Nuclear Energy Society, China, Taipei (*) 1
Chinese Nuclear Society 1(**)
Europe European Nuclear Society(*) 6
Latin America
Latin American Section of ANS(*) 3
Argentinian Association of Nuclear Technology(*) 1
Brazilian Association of Nuclear Energy 1
Mexican Nuclear Society(*) 1
North America
American Nuclear Society(*) 4
Canadian Nuclear Society(*) 2
At-Large
Israel Nuclear Society 1
Egyptian Society of Nuclear Sciences and Applications 1
Pakistan Nuclear Society 1
T O T A L 27

(*) Charter Member.
(**) The Chinese Nuclear Society is considered a Charter Member of the Asia-Pacific region, but has not signed the INSC Charter.

INSC has four officers: Chairman, 1st Vice-Chairman, 2nd Vice-Chairman and Secretary/Treasurer. In addition, to give the necessary material support to the organization, the Chairman appoints an assistant from his Society to perform his secretarial activities.

The officers are elected by majority vote of the members of the Council. The term of office is two years, starting on January 1st of the year following the election.

The following table lists the INSC officers since its creation:

Post 1991-1992 1993-1994 1995-1996 1997-1998 1999-2000
Chairman Jean van
Dievoet (ENS)
L.Manning
Muntzing (ANS)
Mishima
Yoshitsugu (AESJ)
Manuel Acero
(ENS)
Gail de Planque
(ANS)
1st
Vice-Chairman
L.Manning
Muntzing (ANS)
Mishima
Yoshitsugu (AESJ)
Manuel Acero
(ENS)
Robert
Long(**)/ Gail de Planque (ANS)
Chang Kun Lee
(KNS)
2nd
Vice-Chairman
(*) Manuel Acero
(ENS)
Robert Long
(ANS)
Chang Kun Lee
(KNS)
Jorge Spitalnik
(LAS)
Secretary/Treasurer Jorge Spitalnik
(LAS)
Jorge Spitalnik
(LAS)
Jorge Spitalnik
(LAS)
Jorge Spitalnik
(LAS)
Konrad Hädener
(ENS)
Chairman’s
Secretariat
Peter Feuz
(ENS)
James Toscas
(ANS)
Endo Yuzo
(AESJ)
Montserrat
Casero (ENS)
Michael Diekman
(ANS)

(*) The 2nd Vice-Chairman post was established in 1993
(**) Robert Long resigned on 30 Sep. 1997

Pins with the INSC logo, and different background colours to identify the bearer, are provided to Member Societies’ representatives, in accordance with the following criteria:

  • Red – Former Chairman
  • Gold – Chairman
  • Silver – 1st and 2nd Vice-Chairmen
  • Blue – Secretary/Treasurer
  • Copper – Representative of Member Society
  • White – Responsible for the Secretariat

Annex I and II contain the INSC Bylaws and Rules that are currently in force. Annex III is a Guideline approved by the Council.

Annex IV contains the Code of Ethics, called Global Creed, approved by INSC for adoption by Member Societies. The list of Member Societies having adopted it is included in the Annex.

Annex V and VI show statements made public by the Council on matters regarding Nuclear Energy Role in XXIst Century Development and Illegal Trade of Fissile Materials.

The Council accepted the Declaration on Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development shown in Annex VII.

In connection with the 50th Anniversary of the A-bomb and the NPT Extension Conference, the Council made a statement expressing INSC hope for nuclear energy to be utilized exclusively for peaceful uses. The statement refers to the INSC Global Creed prescribing the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy (Annex VIII).

In order to recognize the dedication, based on the Global Creed principles, to the cause of nuclear energy development performed by individual members of Member Societies, the Council instituted a Global Award as defined in Annex IX.

The first INSC Global Award was conferred to Dr. Hans BLIX at the INSC meeting of October 1998, for “his remarkable leadership in influencing global improvement of nuclear installations safety, his active participation in consolidating the safeguards system for nuclear non-proliferation, and his firm leadership in advocating nuclear power relevance as an energy source consistent with goals of sustainable development and environmental protection”.

A posthumous recognition for “his outstanding chairmanship of INSC, his role in consolidating the Council and his commitment to nuclear technology” was awarded to Professor MISHIMA Yoshitsugu, former INSC Chairman, at the Honors and Awards Ceremony held in Nice, France, on 27th October 1998, on the occasion of ENC’98.

INSC has a Home-page in Internet under the following address:

http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~insc/

Safety Convention

INSC views on the peer-review system for the Safety Convention were reported to the IAEA and the Convention Parties in December 1994 (Annex X). This system can accommodate the concept of a list of experts for peer-review made by INSC from inputs by Member Societies. A proposal containing a list of experts nominated by the Member Societies was sent to the Secretary of the Nuclear Safety Convention in spring 1995. (Currently, 57 experts have been nominated by ANA, AESJ, ANS, LAS and NEST). Informative actions took place, in the 1995-96 period, to explain to some Parties and governments the purpose and scope of this proposal.

50-Year Vision of Future Nuclear Energy

Based on the accomplishment of the first fifty years of development, new directions of nuclear energy utilization in the second fifty years were analyzed from a global standpoint and a long-term view. After more than two years of work by the 50-Year Vision Committee, under the leadership of Mr Masao Hori, INSC published the report “A Vision for the Second Fifty Years of Nuclear Energy”. More than 12,800 copies of the report have been issued in English, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Polish languages, Portuguese and Spanish. The Study is expected to be translated into other languages. INSC holds the publication copyright.

This report represents a professional, global, and uncompromised view of those engaged in the development and utilization of nuclear power and related research all around the world:

  • professional, because it was written by technical people who belong to Nuclear Societies that take part of INSC;
  • global, because it gathers the opinion of some 50,000 people from around the world who are represented at INSC through their Nuclear Societies;
  • uncompromised, because it reflects no political or commercial boundaries, just the consensus of the nuclear community worldwide.

A Press Release regarding this publication was issued in April 1996 as shown in Annex XI.

Enhancement of Soviet Reactors Safety

Member Societies described the activities being performed in their countries for enhancing the safety of Soviet designed reactors. Data on actions taken by different countries for improving the safety of such reactors was consolidated by the 1995-96 Secretariat.

Young Generation Nuclear Development

The Council decided to set up a Young Generation Development Committee to prepare a statement proposal to promote the work of younger generations in the nuclear area, taking into account the opinion of the young generation entering the nuclear business.

Climate Change

Aiming at providing subsidies to governments in their discussions at the Conferences on Climate Change, the Council made public statements to underline nuclear power contribution for achieving targets of combustion gases to reduce CO2 emissions and to uphold sustainable development. These statements were distributed at the International Conferences of the Parties held in Kyoto (COP3 – December 1997) and Buenos Aires (COP4 – November 1998). The statements are reproduced in Annex XII.

Action Plan for the Coming Future

The “Action Plan for the Coming Future” was launched by the International Nuclear Societies Council at the end of 1996, with the aim of reinforcing communication and mutual understanding among INSC Member Societies on several nuclear issues of global importance.

Seven INSC Task Groups, made of experts coming from the different INSC Member Societies, were constituted to work on the following subjects:

  • Nuclear Safety
  • Public Acceptance
  • Nuclear Role in Coming Future
  • Radioactive Waste
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation
  • Risk Issues
  • Low Doses Issues.

Reports produced by the Task Groups were issued as chapters of an INSC book entitled “WORLDWIDE INTEGRATED VIEW ON MAIN NUCLEAR ENERGY ISSUES”. The first edition of the book, dated October 1998, was presented at a Special Session organized in conjunction with ENC’98 in Nice, France. The chapters refer to:

  • Toward a worldwide consensus about safety of nuclear reactors
  • Achieving public understanding and acceptance of nuclear power
  • Important issues of global utilization of nuclear energy
  • Radioactive waste
  • Nuclear non-proliferation
  • Role of risk methods in the regulation of nuclear power
  • Low doses of ionizing radiation incurred at low dose rates.

Summaries of chapter contents and the composition of each Task Group are presented in Annex XIII.

As the chapters reflect today’s views, the book shall be continuously updated and improved. The book will have periodical revisions and introduce other issues that may become of interest.

A report by a group of Young Generation professionals was produced with this group’s views on matters related to nuclear science and technology. The report does not represent the INSC position on such matters. This group’s composition and the contents of its report are shown in Annex XIII. The group’s report was issued in October 1998 as an independent publication.

Information Network

The possibility of setting up a system of exchange among member Societies of technical information, R&D recent results, and newly developed operating practices, under the INSC umbrella, is being considered. The system shall not duplicate existing networks.

Waste Disposal

Development of the International Council for Nuclear Waste Disposal (ICND) will receive Council support provided INSC plays an important role in its activities.

Pacific Basin Council

Common meetings for exchange of information and cooperative efforts are periodically organized.

IAEA

The Council is recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a Non Governmental Organization, having an Observer seat at the General Conference of the Agency.

INSC meets twice a year in conjunction with major nuclear energy meetings. INSC meetings have been held as follows:

Nr DATE PLACE
1 11 Nov 1990 Washington DC (USA)
2 16 Apr 1991 Paris (France)
3 10 Nov 1991 San Francisco (USA)
4 13 Apr 1992 Taipei (Taiwan)
5 15 Nov 1992 Chicago (USA)
6 20 Jun 1993 San Diego (USA)
7 3 Oct 1993 Toronto (Canada)
8 1 May 1994 Sydney (Australia)
9 2 Oct 1994 Lyon (France)
10 9 Apr 1995 Tokyo (Japan)
11 29 Oct 1995 San Francisco (USA)
12 4 Apr 1996 Vienna (Austria)
13 20 Oct 1996 Kobe (Japan)
14 10 Apr 1997 Tokyo (Japan)
15 30 Sep 1997 Vienna (Austria)
16 3 May 1998 Banff (Canada)
17 25 Oct 1998 Nice (France)

Annexes

(Adopted November 11, 1990. Amended November 15, 1992)

Name and Purpose

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) is an organization of learned nuclear societies whose interests are in the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. The INSC aims to foster ongoing cooperation, communication and exchange of information among the world’s nuclear societies, undertake joint actions and ensure joint representation where necessary. Specific activities will be planned and programmed by the Council to achieve these aims.

Membership

INSC members can be any national nuclear society or regional federation of such societies. Members will be identified initially according to four Charter Regions (Europe, Far East, North America, Latin America) plus Rest of the world (this last At Large Region being divided into further regions when appropriate). Each region may send up to six representatives to Council meetings. Nuclear Societies wishing to become members shall apply in writing to the Chairman. Membership may be granted by majority vote of the INSC.

Officers

The Council shall elect, by majority vote, a Chairman, a First Vice-Chairman, a Second Vice-Chairman, and a Secretary/Treasurer for concurrent two-year terms beginning January 1. To the extent possible, the officers shall be from different regions, and the Chairmanship rotated among the regions. The Chairman may appoint an assistant, who should be a staff member of his/her Society, to keep contacts with Member Societies up to date, to ensure continuity and to keep the records which, at the end of his/her tenure, will be passed on to his/her successor. The Secretary/Treasurer shall arrange for recording the proceedings of INSC meetings and be responsible for overseeing the administrative and financial affairs of the INSC as directed by the Council.

Fiscal

The INSC shall be operated as a not-for-profit organization. The Council may establish a fund from an agreed upon assessment of its members. This fund will finance secretariat services to support the meetings of the INSC and other activities as may be designated by the Council. It shall not be used for remuneration of members or travel for members other than officers.

Meetings

The Council will meet at least once a year. Invitations will be sent out by the Chairman with the agenda 45 days prior to the meeting(s).

Rules

The INSC may adopt rules for its operation.

Bylaw Amendments

These Bylaws may be amended at any regular meeting of the Council by a two-thirds vote cast by voting members present, provided that a quorum exists and the amendment has been submitted in writing at the previous regular meeting or by mail to all members at least 30 days in advance of the meeting at which the vote is to take place.

Decisions

The Council shall strive to make all decisions by consensus. When a consensus is not feasible on internal matters, decisions shall be made up by a two-thirds majority vote of Council provided a quorum exists. Decisions may be made by mail or at any meeting announced to all members at least 45 days in advance and at which a quorum exists. A quorum is defined as two-thirds of the Council present in person or by proxi.

(Approved November 10, 1991)

1. Membership in the INSC may be through a nuclear society or a regional federation of nuclear societies as stipulated in the INSC Bylaws and in accordance with the following:

  • Nuclear Society Member – Any organization of nuclear scientists and engineers having a minimum of 50 paid-up members, willing to support the charter and Bylaws of INSC, and intending activity in the nuclear field at least country-wide, may become a member of INSC. Local sections of Nuclear Societies within the region of that society (as defined in the Bylaws) may not become members of INSC.
  • Regional Federation of Nuclear Societies Member – Any officially designated organization of nuclear societies, willing to support the charter and Bylaws of the INSC, and intending activity in the nuclear field at least on a regional scale, may become a member of the INSC. Any nuclear society, choosing to be represented through a regional nuclear society, may not become a member of the INSC.
  • Member in good standing – A member in good standing is defined as being a nuclear society member or regional federation of nuclear societies member who is current in payment of the organization’s assessed fees.
  • Observer – To foster the global interests of the INSC, observers, representing other international nuclear organizations or learned societies may be invited to attend meetings of the INSC.

2. Membership may be granted to nuclear societies by majority vote of the Council using a secret ballot. The vote may be made by mail or at a meeting announced to all members at least 45 days in advance and at which a quorum exists.

(Approved October 2, 1994)

  1. Members of INSC shall comply with the “Criteria for Membership” as approved in INSC Meeting 02-91 of 10 November 1991.
  2. A Nuclear Society Member can be either a National or an International Organization within a region as defined by the INSC Bylaws.
  3. A Section, a Branch or any other subdivision of a Nuclear Society Member, may not become a member of INSC if its geographical jurisdiction lies in the same region of the Society Member.
  4. INSC Charter organizations are members of INSC in their own right.
  5. A Federation of Nuclear Societies may become a member of INSC if the geographical area covered by the Federation lies within a region as defined in the INSC Bylaws. Member societies of a INSC Federation Member may not become individual members of INSC. With the exception of Charter organizations as stated in item 4, Nuclear Societies that were individual Members of INSC prior to the INSC membership of a Federation of Nuclear Societies, shall lose their INSC Member condition upon joining such Federation.
  6. The distribution of unoccupied seats in a given region shall be agreed upon by the Members of such region, provided that at least each Member of the region has one seat. If agreement cannot be reached by consensus of the members of the region, INSC shall distribute the unoccupied seats among the members of the region by majority vote of the Council, upon proposal submitted by the INSC Officers. In this case, seats allocated by the Council shall be vacated as soon as the application by a new Nuclear Society of the region is approved.
  7. INSC Member Societies in the “at-large” region can apply for the creation of a new region, provided they belong to a determined geographical area. A minimum of three “at-large” members are required for such an application be considered by the INSC Chairman. The Council shall approve by majority vote a proposal on this matter put up by the INSC Officers. Under this situation, during a two years period, item 6 above shall not apply for the completion of unoccupied seats in the newly created region.

Additional Provision

(Approved October 29, 1995)

(To be applied in cases not foreseen in previous paragraphs 1 to 7 and not to modify the status of vote rights of October 1995).

8. More than one national nuclear society within the same country may become an INSC Society Member provided that the new member(s) is(are) admitted in the “at-large” region if no vacant seat(s) is(are) available within the geographical region being considered. To reflect the position of the majority of their combined membership, INSC Member Societies of the same country shall reach previous agreement to have a common position on INSC voting issues subject to the rule that the country in question must be represented by just one vote in the Council.

(Approved June 20, 1993)

Nuclear Professionals should uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of their profession by:

  • Promoting the involvement of Societies and professionals worldwide in the quest of excellence and quality in the application of nuclear science and technology for the service of humanity.
  • Promoting the use of their knowledge and skills for the enhancement of human welfare by furthering public health and safety and environmental protection in the implementation of nuclear projects and programs.
  • Enhancing the peaceful uses and application of nuclear science and technology.
  • Ensuring the public is informed of the facts surrounding nuclear science and technology in an objective and truthful manner.

SOCIETIES HAVING ADOPTED THE INSC GLOBAL CREED – AS OF 31st DECEMBER 1998:

  • Asociación Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN)
  • Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)
  • American Nuclear Society (ANS)
  • Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ)
  • Australian Nuclear Association (ANA)
  • Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS)
  • Israel Nuclear Society (INS)
  • Korea Nuclear Society (KNS)
  • Latin American Section of ANS (LAS)
  • Nuclear Energy Society, China, Taipei (NEST)
  • Nuclear Society of Russia
  • Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana (SNM)

(Distributed at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) is composed of learned nuclear societies working with global co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, for the benefit of mankind in a manner in which the public health and safety, and environmental protection, are paramount.

In 1990, learned nuclear societies of four geographical regions of the world, namely:

  • North America
  • Central and South America
  • Europe
  • East Asia

as well as an at-large region, founded INSC.

The member societies of INSC today have a total of more than 40,000 members who are scientists, engineers, technicians, and specialists with a major interest in the development of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The best expression to date of their opinion about nuclear energy in the 21st century is hereby appended:

A sustainable energy resource

There is a growing global consensus on the need for sustainable development. Adequate energy supply is critical for emerging economies to develop and for industrialized economies to support the legitimate needs of their societies. Energy in the form of electric power is essential to improve efficiency, develop conservation technologies, recover, recycle and properly dispose of wastes, and minimize environmental pollution. Nuclear energy can play a vitally needed role in meeting future electricity needs.

Safety and environmental assessment

Electricity generated from nuclear fission energy has been evaluated in more depth than any other energy source. Licensed nuclear power plants, designed to established standards and operated by qualified personnel, have amassed a safety record unmatched by any alternative energy source. The accident at Chernobyl was indeed serious. Important safety features required by Western safety standards, including a pressure-resistant containment building, are not present in the Chernobyl-type plants. All new designs must meet stringent safety standards, and international efforts are proving successful in instilling a safety culture and management controls to all operating plants.

With the exception of those regions where more hydroelectric power is available, nuclear energy is the only large-scale source of base-load power that produces no sulfur oxides, no acid rain and no carbon dioxide emissions. It does produce radioactive wastes. These are sufficiently concentrated that it is worth the effort and cost to confine them and dispose of them in permanent repositories, and thereby keep them out of the environment forever.

Wastes already exist from more than thirty years of commercial nuclear electricity production. The technology for safe disposal is well understood, and is being pursued in a number of nations. High-level wastes are concentrated, carefully handled, and are being stored safely. The major nuclear nations have plans for permanent disposal facilities. It is the obligation of the current generation to dispose of them safely and permanently. The proper test for any repository is safety, and not its location relative to state or national borders.

A part of the mix for base-load electricity production

No claims are made that nuclear power is the only answer to electricity needs. Nuclear plants provide base-load power, day and night, while peak loads can be met by natural gas and even oil. Alternative energy sources: solar, wind, geothermal and hydro, should be used whenever they are available. Choices for future plants need to be based not only on the cost of production, but also on environmental impacts. In some nations, attempts are being made to estimate and internalize environmental costs into the calculated costs of production.

Energy conservation programs can lower demand growth rates, and delay for a few years perhaps, but not eliminate, the need for new power plants.

The record around the world shows that nuclear plants can compete effectively with coal and other alternative sources. They provide diversity of supply, and in some nations are of critical importance in reducing the need for imported oil and liquified natural gas. Reliability records are improving each year. New plants are currently under construction in France, Japan, China, Korea, Brazil and Romania.

Uranium resources are abundant and fuel supplies are economical at this time. Recycling of plutonium will help to keep nuclear fuel prices down and extend the natural uranium resource well into the 21st century. Ultimately, breeder reactors will be able to produce enough new plutonium to assure sufficient nuclear fuel supply for future centuries.

The civilian nuclear power fuel cycle and safeguards

The commercial nuclear electric power fuel cycle is not a logical or effective pathway to nuclear weapons. Systems of safeguards under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreements have proven successful in assuring that diversion of plutonium has not taken place. Experience has shown that accurate inventories of critical materials can be maintained.

The major weapon states are IAEA signatories and have put their commercial fuel cycles under IAEA safeguards. Most non-weapons states have accepted full-scope safeguards, committing themselves to having no national program to develop nuclear weapons. It is of critical importance to bring the remaining nations into IAEA agreements.

The sad experience with Iraq proves that if a nation is determined to acquire nuclear weapons, it will not depend on the nuclear power fuel cycle. Iraq’s weapons facilities were totally clandestine. It had no nuclear power plants.

Summary

Nuclear energy is a safe and environmentally acceptable source for base-load electricity generation. Because radioactive wastes already exist, facilities must be built for their ultimate disposal. Commercial nuclear power under IAEA safeguards is not a realistic pathway to nuclear weapons. Therefore, decisions affecting the extent of nuclear power’s future role will likely depend on economics, diversity of fuel supply and environmental considerations.

Electricity will help build a clean energy base upon which sustainable future development will be based. As other energy sources become practical, they can join fossil fuels and nuclear energy to sustain a diverse base of energy.

(October 2, 1994)

The International Nuclear Society Council (INSC) is an organization whose member societies represent more than 50,000 nuclear professionals around the world and is dedicated to the principle that the nuclear professional has an overall responsibility for nuclear safety. Therefore, the Council is alert to any lapse in the global nuclear safety structure. In that respect, the INSC is most concerned about the apparent breakdown in security measures that has resulted in the recent uncontrolled availability of fissile materials.

The Council views a correction of this problem to be of paramount urgency. It is encouraged to see the rapid reaction of involved governments and international agencies in apprehending the material. Furthermore, the INSC recognizes immediate international efforts to correct the breach of security.

The Council stresses the significance of nuclear materials control and urges governments to pay serious attention to the management of fissile materials and the importance of the responsibilities resting on the individuals involved in such management.

The Council further recommends to its member societies that they should stress to the relevant authorities the need to discourage unethical actions leading to unauthorized transfer of fissile materials.

On behalf of the Nuclear Scientists and Technologists of the World as presented by their leadership in International Nuclear Societies – 1994

The continued growth of the world population and the need to achieve an acceptable and equitable global quality of life is placing great pressures on the world’s natural resources of energy, air, water, land and biota. We, the undersigned, are fully supportive of the concept of global sustainable development.

  • We believe that, as citizens, it is essential also to address the sustainable development of the wold’s resources from a global perspective in terms of energy supply.
  • We believe that all energy sources: nuclear, fossil, hydroelectric, solar, wind, and others, will be needed to meet the energy requirements for the increasing world population.
  • We believe that energy should be derived from a variety of sources depending upon the application and the location of the need; that the source should be selected on the basis of rational assessment of the use of resources, the effect on the environment, and the economic considerations.
  • We believe that such an assessment would lead naturally to the inclusion of nuclear power as part of the mix of energy supply sources.
  • We believe that the separation of fission product waste, and the recycle of remaining energy resources, from “spent” nuclear fuel is an option that can be considered in reducing high-level waste and in managing resources.
  • We believe also that, beyond sustainable energy production, the use of radiation in medicine, manufacturing processes, agriculture, transport, scientific research, and food production, offers the ability to significantly improve the quality of life while reducing adverse effects on the environment and preserving valuable resources.

(April 9, 1995)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) representing 50,000 nuclear professionals in 46 societies around the world is dedicated to ensure nuclear power is utilized for peaceful uses.

In this context, initiatives taken to promote such peaceful uses by other organizations are strongly supported by the INSC.

The INSC fulfills this role by its professionals working to the following Global Creed:

Nuclear Professionals should uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of their profession by:

  • Promoting the involvement of Societies and professionals worldwide in the quest of excellence and quality in the application of nuclear science and technology for the service of humanity.
  • Promoting the use of their knowledge and skills for the enhancement of human welfare by furthering public health and safety and environmental protection in the implementation of nuclear projects and programs.
  • Enhancing the peaceful uses and application of nuclear science and technology.
  • Ensuring the public is informed of the facts surrounding nuclear science and technology in an objective and truthful manner.

(Approved May 1, 1994)

The International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) in the desire to promote recognition of noteworthy innovative efforts in the interests of safe and economically responsible peaceful application of nuclear technology herewith creates the INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR SOCIETIES GLOBAL AWARD to honor an individual or program group whose international professional efforts in developing nuclear technology utilization in a sustainable manner for the welfare of society are in accordance with the principles of the INSC Global Creed. These efforts should be conducted such that the enhancement of public health and safety and environmental protection is integral and essential to the activity.

The AWARD will be given by the INSC to a person or to a specific project team of persons exclusively on the merit of their contributions regardless of nationality, domicile, language, religion, or sex.

The AWARD may be presented each year at an appropriate General Meeting of an INSC member Society or at an International Meeting of two or more INSC member Societies. The rotation of the ceremonies at which the presentation of the AWARD is made among the INSC member Societies is encouraged but is not mandatory.

The INSC Council Chairman will request the timely nomination of suitable candidates from the INSC member Societies. The Winner of the AWARD will be selected by the INSC from lists of candidates submitted by member Societies of INSC. Each member Society will identify its nominees as appropriate to its By-Laws and Procedures. Each member Society may submit up to two individual or project team candidates. Unsuccessful candidates must be re-nominated to be reconsidered.

The lists of candidates must be submitted to the INSC at least six months prior to the conference at which the AWARD is to be given. Following a review and subsequent recommendation by a special committee of the Council, the Winner of the AWARD should be selected by the INSC council a minimum of three months prior to the meeting at which the presentation is made. The INSC member Society that nominated the Winner will be notified in writing immediately.

The AWARD may not be given to more than one person or specific project team at a time. The INSC may abstain from selecting a winner in any year.

The AWARD consists of a suitable bronze figure and a framed certificate.

The INSC will be responsible for:

  • assuring the agreement and presence of the Winner of the AWARD,
  • preparing the bronze figure,
  • conducting the AWARD recognition ceremony.

The AWARD will be given by the Chairman of the INSC, or in the event of his or her absence, by one of the Vice-Chairmen of the INSC.

The INSC will bear the costs arising from the administration of this AWARD. The costs of the recognition ceremony will be borne by the hosting member Society. Travel expenses for the Winner of the AWARD will be borne by the member Society that nominated the Winner.

Modifications to these agreements have to be done in writing and have to be duly signed by representatives of the INSC and the member Societies.

(October 2, 1994)

The INSC wishes to present to the IAEA, that will provide the secretariat for the meetings of the Contracting Parties, some suggestions related to the process for reviewing the reports on the measures taken by each Contracting Party to implement its obligations of the Convention. In writing these suggestions, the INSC made a large use of the clarification document attached to the Convention.

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE REVIEW PROCESS

The reports submitted pursuant to Article 5 of the Convention will hereinafter be referred to as “the national reports”. The process for reviewing them, under Article 22, will be established by the Contracting Parties at the preparatory meeting held pursuant to Article 21; this process will be hereinafter referred as to “the review process”.

The INSC has examined two steps in the review process:

Step 1: The preparation of the national reports
Step 2: The review meetings of the Contracting Parties (Article 20), hereinafter referred as to “the review meetings”.

Step 1

The national reports will be prepared under the sole responsibility of the member States. Their form, structure and date of submission will follow the guidelines and directives established by the Contracting Parties (Article 22). The INSC suggests that:

  • The national reports should, as applicable, address separately each obligation of the Convention, and demonstrate how it has been met, with specific reference to – inter alia – legislation, procedures and design criteria.
  • When a national report states that a particular obligation has not been met, that report should also state what measures are being taken or planned to meet that obligation.
  • Each national report should include, when applicable, the response of the Contracting Party to conclusions and recommendations of the previous review meetings.
  • The national report should make reference inter alia to the results of recognized international peer review mechanisms such as IAEA, OECD/NEA and WANO services, when available.
  • Before submission to the Convention review process, the national reports may be reviewed, under national responsibility, by experts independent from the regulatory and operating organizations; the results of the review would be attached to the national report. When a Contracting Party cannot rely upon an existing national group of recognized experts, it should be able to request the assistance of international experts selected from a list endorsed by the Contracting Parties.

The INSC considers that the preparatory meeting (Article 21) could recommend that all national reports should be reviewed by international experts before submission to the Convention process. A list of recognized experts would have to be endorsed by the preparatory meeting and made available to each Contracting Party. The INSC could provide in due time suitable lists of experts from all over the world, kept up-to-date.

Prior to the review meetings, each Contracting Party will have to analyze the national reports from other Contracting Parties. If it needs the assistance of experts for this task, the Contracting Party could use that same list of international experts.

Step 2

Under Article 20, sub-groups may function during the review meetings, and each Contracting Party shall have a reasonable opportunity to seek clarification of the national reports. The INSC suggests that the review meetings should be organized in the following way:

  1. The first part of the meeting would be devoted to a plenary discussion of the national reports with the main purpose of clarification; there would be no official record of the discussions.
  2. In the second part, the meeting would split into sub-groups, each group examining a topical area; the list of the areas, and the names of the corresponding chairpersons of the sub-groups, will have been selected at the previous review meeting, and, for the first meeting, at the preparatory meeting (Article 21), by the Contracting Parties . The purpose of a sub-group meeting would be the review of all national reports in its topical area.In each sub-group, experts would identify problems, concerns, uncertainties, or omissions in national reports, focusing on the most significant concerns, in order to ensure efficient and fruitful debate. Experts would be selected by a steering committee composed of the chairperson of the meeting and the assembly of all sub-group chairpersons.Representatives of the Contracting Parties would have the possibility to ask questions about the treatment of relevant safety questions in other national reports and to summarize their views based upon the work done before the meeting for examination of other national reports.The chairperson of each group would produce a summary document dealing with the safety issues raised during the discussions, without specifying individual countries.
  3. The last part of the meeting would be plenary; the conclusions of all sub-groups would be presented, and a document available to the public would be adopted by consensus (Article 25). The topical areas for the next meeting would be selected, and the chairpersons of the meeting and the sub-groups designated; they would constitute the steering committee of the next meeting.

The effectiveness of the suggested review process will rest upon the quality and competence of recognized safety experts. The INSC reiterates its proposal to provide the Contracting Parties with lists of experts from all over the world, with due consideration to the geographical distribution of the Contracting Parties, and to keep them up-to-date.

(April 4, 1996)

NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY – A VISION OF HOPE FOR HUMANITY

Based on information from the World Energy Council and other international organizations, the International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC) has just issued a 3-years study titled “A Vision for the Second Fifty Years of Nuclear Energy”, which concludes that nuclear science and technology will become commonly accepted in the next century. Not only will nuclear technology be essential in providing energy, its use will continue to grow rapidly in health care, in the food industry and in the manufacturing industries.

The International Nuclear Societies Council is a world-wide organization representing 50,000 professional members from 37 nuclear societies. The study was completed by an international committee of the INSC made up of experts from Nuclear Societies of Europe, North America, the Far East and Latin America.

In fifty years, there will be twice as many people on the planet, with most of the growth in the developing countries. As all nations will strive to provide its citizens a quality of life closer to that of those who live in the industrialized countries, the world will need substantially more energy. Global energy demand will more than double over the next 50 years. Fossil fuels, which today make up 80% of the world’s energy supply, will likely be constrained by environmental concerns over global warming. Nevertheless, the large growth in the use of fossil fuels and in the emission of carbon dioxide is likely to continue. Even with major expansions in the use of hydroelectric power and other renewable energies, there will still be a shortfall, and the only other energy option available to fill the gap is nuclear energy. With technology available today, there will be ample uranium and thorium for nuclear energy to fill such energy demand.

The use of nuclear science and technology in the health care field will continue to grow as society demands more efficient diagnosis and treatment, at lower costs. Nuclear science will be used more and more in imaging to determine the source and extent of medical problems. Radiation sterilization of medical supplies will become universal.

Much of the world’s malnutrition can be attributed to loss of existing food by insect infestation, bacterial decay and spoilage. Irradiation is a proven method of solving these problems. In fifty years, irradiation of many foods will likely be considered as necessary and desirable to the consumer as is pasteurization of milk today.

Of all these applications of nuclear technology, the supply of energy is central, and will require the largest investments in financial and human resources. The INSC study therefore examines the strategies that will be needed to achieve the vision. It describes the evolution underway in the design, construction and operation of current types of nuclear power plants. Continuing cost reductions will ensure that nuclear power remains competitive with the fossil fuels, particularly coal and low-cost pipeline natural gas. A Henry Ford type of approach to the supply of new nuclear power plants will be needed to bring the costs down substantially.

By the middle of the next century, the demand for energy, combined with concerns over global warming, may make recycling an economically attractive option. Fast reactors offer the promise of breeding – recycling nuclear fuel to convert essentially all of the available uranium into energy. This is the strategic importance of the fast reactor. Ultimately, the full recycle of uranium with plutonium in fast reactors can offer the assurance of sustainable and economic nuclear fuel supply for centuries to come.

The study makes clear that nuclear science and technology can and will make significant contributions to the sustainable development and well-being of all humankind.

The INSC Committee which prepared the study was chaired by Masao Hori of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The study was edited by Stanley R. Hatcher of the Canadian Nuclear Society, and published by the American Nuclear Society.

For further information, contact:

INSC

Mr. Jorge Spitalnik
Secretary INSC
c/o Latin American Section of ANS
Rua da Candelária 65 16th Floor
Rio de Janeiro 20091-020
BRAZIL
Phone: (55) 21 588 7105
Fax: (55) 21 588-7219
E-mail: jspitalnik@ax.ibase.org.br

Mr. Yuzo Endo
INSC Secretariat
c/o Atomic Energy of Japan
1-1-13 Shimbashi, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105
JAPAN
Phone: (81) 3 3508 1261
Fax: (81) 3 3581 6128
E-mail: EVH80637@pcvan.or.jp

Publisher

Publication Department
American Nuclear Society
555 North Kensington Avenue
La Grange Park, IL 60525-5592 USA
Phone: (1) 708 579-8200
Fax: (1) 708 579-8295
e-mail: mgardner@ans.org

Member Societies of INSC

  • American Nuclear Society (ANS)
  • Asociación Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear (AATN)
  • Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear (ABEN)
  • Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ)
  • Australian Nuclear Association (ANA)
  • Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS)
  • Egyptian Society of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (ESNSA)
  • European Nuclear Society (ENS)
    Austrian Nuclear Society, Belgian Nuclear Society, British Nuclear Energy Society, Bulgarian Nuclear Society, Croatian Nuclear Society, Czech Nuclear Society, Danish Nuclear Society, Finnish Nuclear Society, French Nuclear Society, German Nuclear Society, Hungarian Nuclear Society, The Institution of Nuclear Engineers, Italian Nuclear Society, Italian Local Section of ANS, Netherlands Nuclear Society, Nuclear Society of Russia, Nuclear Society of Slovenia, Polish Nuclear Society, Romanian Nuclear Energy Professional Organization, Slovak Nuclear Society, Spanish Nuclear Society, Swedish Nuclear Society, Swiss Nuclear Society, Ukrainian Nuclear Society, Yugoslav Nuclear Society.
  • Israel Nuclear Society (INS)
  • Korean Nuclear Society (KNS)
  • Latin American Section (LAS)
  • Nuclear Energy Society, China, Taipei (NEST)
  • Pakistan Nuclear Society (PNS)
  • Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana (SNM)

A statement to the COP3 by the INSC

(October, 1997)

The International Nuclear Societies Council believes that the world’s capacity for generating electricity from nuclear power must be increased substantially, if we are to meet the ambitious targets for reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide.

A central tenet of the Third Conference of the Parties (COP3), to be held in Kyoto in December 1997, is that carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels may cause changes in the earth’s climate. An objective of the Conference will be to set limits on the emissions of carbon dioxide.

Little progress has been made in meeting the target of the Rio Accord of 1992 to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels. The trends over the last 30 years show that, while there have been increases in emissions from the US and other OECD countries, most of the increase has occurred in the developing world, as those countries strive to develop market economies and raise their standards of living (Table 1). Over the period 1990 – 1995, this large increase was offset by a reduction in emissions from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and the Eastern European countries, because their economies slowed dramatically as they began to adapt to market-driven economies. With this phase ending, it is to be expected that there will be no further decreases in their emissions, and there may well be increases, as their economies start to grow again. Today, about one quarter of the carbon dioxide emissions comes from the US, one quarter from the rest of the OECD, and half from the rest of the world.

It is now generally accepted that the global energy demand will increase by two to three times by the middle of the next century. Energy demand in the developing countries is growing by over 4% per year and already accounts for over 30% of the global total. Its growth is likely to continue at a much higher rate than in the OECD countries.

With these patterns of growth, reductions of 20% in emissions from the OECD countries will not achieve a global reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. For example, if the OECD countries were to reduce emissions by 20%, and if the developing countries were to maintain their economic development with emissions following the trends of recent years, then the resulting global emissions in 2015 would be 30% higher than in 1995.

Thus energy conservation programs in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), while highly desirable, are by no means sufficient. Furthermore, the major gains in energy efficiency during the 1970s and 1980s have already attacked the easy targets; further gains will be more difficult and costly. To have any real impact on global carbon dioxide emissions, the principal emphasis must be on energy sources other than fossil fuels.

Renewable energy sources can contribute to the solution. The only commercial large scale renewable energy in use is hydroelectric power, which today contributes about 3% of the global energy supply. It could be expanded to replace about 3% of the additional energy demand, if all potential rivers were developed. However, this does not seem likely, given concern in many countries over the environmental impact of new hydroelectric development. In any event, the additional energy provided would have little influence on the total energy picture. No other renewable energies have yet demonstrated commercially economic and reliable energy production on a large scale, and today they have no measurable contribution to the global energy supply. Even with large government development and operating subsidies, it is doubtful that these could provide even 10% of the energy supply within two decades.

Nuclear power is the only sustainable energy option available today that can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. After several decades of development by governments and investment by electric utilities, it currently provides about 7% of the world’s energy supply. Nuclear power is a zero-carbon energy source that is commercially proven, safe in operation, does not produce other greenhouse gases, and contains its waste products. The technology for permanent disposal of waste is already well advanced and needs firm political action to put it into operation. By using demonstrated technologies, nuclear fuel reserves in nature can be extended for centuries of operation. An important feature of nuclear power is that the cost of fuel and operation is relatively small compared with capital cost. Thus, once built, nuclear power plants produce electricity at a cost that is relatively insensitive to inflation or the fluctuations of prices on the world energy market.

However, neither the renewable energy technologies nor new nuclear power plants can compete economically with pipeline natural gas at current prices, wherever it is readily available. In both cases, the initial capital cost is too high.

Thus, radical measures will be needed, if the objective truly is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. These measures must be undertaken in the context that a moral priority for the coming century will be to help all countries achieve a reasonable standard of living. To do this, the developing countries must industrialize to generate enough wealth to support a higher standard of living, which in the long term will reduce their rate of population growth. This is the only solution that has been demonstrated to stabilize population growth.

Given all these factors, and the global thrust to market economies, the only practical strategies available to governments in their initiative to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are to impose taxes on the emissions, or to provide subsidies for energy produced from non-fossil resources, or a combination of these measures.

Thus, the International Nuclear Societies Council believes that governments should acknowledge the significant impact that nuclear power has played in limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, to minimize future emissions, governments should:

  • continue to strive for increased efficiency of energy use
  • encourage the use of renewable energies, where they can be shown to be economically beneficial and environmentally acceptable
  • strongly encourage the continued operation of existing nuclear power plants and facilitate the extension of their operating life
  • support the development and deployment of new, optimized, cost competitive nuclear power plants
  • consider taxes on carbon dioxide emissions, and subsidies to energy options that do not emit carbon dioxide.

 

Table 1. TRENDS IN CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
Billion Tonnes Carbon

REGION 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
OECD 2.4 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6
FSU & Europe 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.0
Rest of World 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.6
TOTAL 3.9 4.8 5.4 6.1 6.5 7.1 7.2

All numbers for carbon dioxide emissions are derived from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 1996

A statement to the COP4 by the INSC

(October, 1998)

For Distribution at the 4th Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Buenos Aires, Argentina (November, 1998)

The International Nuclear Societies Council believes that the world’s capacity for generating electricity from nuclear power must be increased substantially, if we are to meet the ambitious targets for reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide.

A central tenet of the Fourth Conference of the Parties (COP4), to be held in Buenos Aires, in November 1998, is that carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels may cause changes in the earth’s climate. An objective of the Conference will be to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide on a worldwide basis.

Little progress has been made in meeting the target of the Rio Accord of I 992 to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels. The Conference celebrated at KYOTO last year concluded with the accepted compromise of several developed countries to reduce the gases emissions between 2008 and 2012. Even that a good degree of flexibility has been incorporated in the program in order to facilitate the achievement of these objectives there are expected difficulties for some countries to properly react in due time. This makes evident the need to urgently complete, quantify and implement these objectives on a worldwide basis.

The trends over the last 30 years show that, while there have been increases in emissions from the US and other OECD countries, most of the increase has occurred in the developing world, as those countries strive to develop market economies and raise their standards of living (Table 1). Over the period 1990-1998 this large increase was offset by a reduction in emissions from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and the Eastern European countries, because their economies slowed dramatically as they began to adapt to market-driven economies. With this phase ending, it is to be expected that there will be no further decreases in their emissions, and there may well be increases, as their economies start to grow again.

Today, about one quarter of the carbon dioxide emissions comes from the US, one quarter from the rest of the OECD, and half from the rest of the world. The only country with demonstrable program reducing C02 emissions is France. France, with 42% of its energy produced by nuclear plants is a clear example of the path that the world’s nations should follow in order to reduce carbon emissions without impeding economic activity (Figures below).

It is now generally accepted that the global energy demand will increase by two to three times by the middle of the next century. Energy demand in the developing countries is growing by over 4% per year and already accounts for over 30% of the global total. Its growth is likely to continue at a much higher rate than in the OECD countries.

With these patterns of growth, reductions of 20% in emissions from the OECD countries will not achieve a global reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. For example, if the OECD countries were to reduce emissions by 20%, and if the developing countries were to maintain their economic development with emissions following the trends of recent years, then the resulting global emissions in 2015 would be 30% higher than in 1995.

Thus energy conservation programs in the countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), while highly desirable, are by no means sufficient. Furthermore, the major gains in energy efficiency during the 1970s and 1980s have already attacked the easy targets; further gains will be more difficult and costly. To have any real impact on global carbon dioxide emissions, the principal emphasis must be on energy sources other than fossil fuels.

Renewable energy sources can contribute to the solution. The only commercial large scale renewable energy in use is hydroelectric power, which today contributes about 3% of the global energy supply. It could be expanded to replace about 3% of the additional energy demand, if all potential rivers were developed. However, this does not seem likely, given concern in many countries over the environmental impact of new hydroelectric development. In any event, the additional energy provided would have little influence on the total energy picture. No other renewable energies have yet demonstrated commercially economic and reliable energy production on a large scale, and today they have no measurable contribution to the global energy supply. Even with large government development an operating subsidies, it is doubtful that these could provide even 10% of the energy supply within two decades.

Nuclear power is the only sustainable energy option available today than can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. After several decades of development by governments and investment by electric utilities, it currently provides about 7% of the world’s energy supply. Nuclear power is a nearly zero-carbon energy source that is commercially proven, safe in operation, does not produce other greenhouse gases, and contains its waste products. The technology for permanent disposal of waste is already well advanced and needs firm political action to put it into operation. By using demonstrated technologies, nuclear fuel reserves in nature can be extended for centuries of operation. An important feature of nuclear power is that the cost of fuel and operation is relatively small compared with capital cost. Thus, once built, nuclear power plants produce electricity at a cost that is relatively insensitive to inflation or the fluctuations of prices on the world energy market.

However, neither the renewable energy technologies nor new nuclear power plants can compete economically with pipeline natural gas at current prices, wherever it is readily available. In both cases, the initial capital cost is too high.

Thus, radical measures will be needed, if the objective truly is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. These measures must be undertaken in the context that a moral priority for the coming century will be to help all countries achieve a reasonable standard of living. To do this, the developing countries must industrialize to generate enough wealth to support a higher standard of living, which in the long term will reduce their rate of population growth. This is the only solution that has been demonstrated to stabilize population growth.

Given all these factors, and the global thrust to market economies, the only practical strategies available to governments in their initiative to reduce carbon dioxide emissions are to impose taxes on the emissions, or to provide subsidies for energy produced from non-fossil resources, or a combination of these measures.

Thus, the International Nuclear Societies Council believes that governments should acknowledge the significant impact that nuclear power has played in limiting global carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, to minimize future emissions, governments should:

  • continue to strive for increased efficiency of energy use
  • encourage the use of renewable energies, where they can be shown to be economically beneficial and environmentally acceptable
  • strongly encourage the continued operation of existing nuclear power plants and facilitate the extension of their operating life
  • support the development and deployment of new, optimized, cost competitive nuclear power plants
  • consider taxes on carbon dioxide emissions, and subsidies to energy options that do not emit carbon dioxide.

 

TABLE 1: TRENDS IN CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
Billion Tonnes Carbon

REGION 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997
OECD 2.4 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5
FSU & Europe 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.0 1.9 1.9
Rest of World 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.6 2.1 2.2
TOTAL 3.9 4.8 5.4 6.1 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.5 7.6

All numbers for carbon dioxide emissions are derived from the BP

(October 25, 1998)

CHAPTER

TASK GROUP MEMBERS

SUMMARY

TOWARD A WORLDWIDE CONSENSUS ABOUT SAFETY OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Nuclear Safety: Bernard Roche, chair (ENS), Fred Boyd (CNS), Ezra Elias (INS), Mario Fontana (ANS), Tsing-Tung Huang (NEST), Witold Lepecki (LAS), Miguel Medina (SNM), W.I. Midvidy (CNS), Mr. Hiroshi Sekimoto (AESJ). Safety and competitiveness of nuclear power plants are a major preoccupation for utilities, vendors or safety authorities. Standardization is a good solution to meet these goals which implies a worldwide consensus about safety rules. The paper contributes to give some areas of consensus both for existing and future plants.
ACHIEVING PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING AND ACCEPTANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER Public Acceptance: Egon Frech, chair (ANS), Roger J. Alsop (ANA), Bertrand Barré (ENS), Guilherme Camargo (ABEN), Bruno De Vecchi (SNM), Colin Duncan (ENS), Audeen Fentiman (ANS), Andrei Gagarinski (ENS), Roxanne Summers (ANS), Yasumasa Tanaka (AESJ). The growth of the nuclear power option is impeded in many countries by public concerns over the safety and environmental consequences of producing electricity by means of nuclear reactors. This paper examines the nature and causes of public concerns about the development and implementation of the plans and technologies for nuclear power, the need for public understanding and acceptance of such plans and technologies, and the means for potentially achieving it.
IMPORTANT ISSUES IN GLOBAL UTILIZATION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Role in Coming Future: Masao Hori, chair (AESJ), Manuel Acero (ENS), Yumi Akimoto (AESJ), Rafael Baizabal (SNM), Neil R. McDonald (ANA), Jorge Spitalnik (LAS), Bert Wolfe (ANS). The Task Group has considered the prospects of nuclear power in coming future and has produced a position paper including status analysis and action plan to be taken in a short term. The paper covers important issues of nuclear energy for global utilization, which are not studied by other task groups, including ethical issues on the use of nuclear energy and the environment.
RADIOACTIVE WASTE Radioactive Waste: John Mathieson, chair (ENS), Clarence J. Hardy (ANA), Der-Yu Hsia (NEST), Toshiaki Ohe (AESJ), Raul Ramirez (SNM), Aurelio Ulibarri (ENS). The purpose of this paper is to look at radioactive waste management from an international perspective. At the same time consider how different countries are applying top level principles of radwaste management in providing an environmental solution to a technological problem. The paper concentrates on the disposal of solid radioactive waste but many of the same principles apply to discharges of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents as well.
NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Chang Kun Lee, chair (KNS), Andrei Gagarinski (ENS), Myron Kratzer (ANS), Andrej Stritar (ENS), Tatsujiro Suzuki (AESJ), Carlos Velez (SNM), J.J. Wagschal (INS).

 

Revision-1 Editor: Jorge Spitalnik (LAS).

This report analyzes the different pathways that lead to nuclear proliferation, looks at the record of nuclear bomb tests, evaluates the status of weapons possessed by the so-called “have countries”, and discusses the structure of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Mention is made of the wherewithals of strengthening the non-proliferation measures, and an approach is suggested in order to enhance global non-proliferation.
ROLE OF RISK METHODS IN THE REGULATION OF NUCLEAR POWER Risk Issues: Robert Bari, chair (ANS), Luiz Alberto Ilha Arrieta (LAS), Maria Teresa Dominguez (ENS), Ezra Elias (INS), Donald J. Higson (ANA), Peter Kafka (ENS), Shunsuke Kondo (AESJ). The Task Group has developed a status report on the use of risk-based approaches to nuclear reactor safety in various countries. This includes contributions from 15 countries on five continents. It is clear from all countries surveyed that probabilistic risk assessment methods have become an important part of the safety evaluation and management processes in support of regulation.
LOW DOSES OF IONISING RADIATION INCURRED AT LOW DOSE RATES Low Doses Issues: Donald J. Higson, chair (ANA), John Graham (ANS), Jae-Shik Jun (KNS), Sadayoshi Kobayashi (AESJ) , R.E.J. Mitchel (CNS). This report addresses the scientific information available on the biological effects of low radiation doses. For radiation protection purposes, ICRP recommends the assumption that the risk of radiation induced cancer is proportional to the dose without a threshold. However, at low doses, it is also possible that there is no risk or that there are benefits from exposure. The possibility that there are bio-positive effects from radiation exposure of humans needs to be accepted and investigated without prejudice. On the current basis of information, INSC recommends the assumption, for all purposes other than scientific research, that there is no significant biological effect from low doses of radiation.

REPORT

MEMBERS

SUMMARY

REPORT OF THE YOUNGER GENERATION OF PROFESSIONALS WITHIN NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PREPARED BY THE YOUNGER GENERATION GROUP FOR THE COUNCIL Younger Generation Group: John Graham, chair (ANS), Ronald Berk (The Netherlands), Sama Bilbao y Leon (Spain), Marko Cepin (Slovenia), Hideichi Hasegawa (Japan), Roland Jansma (The Netherlands), Frederick Johansson (Sweden), Han Gon Kim (Korea), Serguei Klykov (Russia), Rogelio Rea Soto (SNM), Emmy Roos (Belgium), Alexandre Tsyboulia (Russia), Karl Umstadter (USA). This is not an INSC paper but a report resulting from the discussions of a group of the younger generation of professionals in nuclear science and technology. It covers the views of the younger generations of nuclear professionals, in particular in areas such as Employment, Professional ethics, Analysis of older generations activities, Means for expression of views and ideas.